Doctorandus (equivalent to MA) in Sociology, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, 1976.
MA in International Affairs, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, US, 1980.
MA in Political Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, US, 1983.
PhD in Political Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, US, 1983.
Foreign travelling correspondent and film critics for TEMPO weekly news magazine, 1971-1979.
Chairman, Jakarta Arts Council, 1990-1998.
Lecturer in the School of Social Sciences, Jakarta, 1987-1990.
Lecturer in the Graduate School of the Department of Social and Political Science, University of Indonesia, 1994-.
Visiting Lecturer, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 1997.
Visiting Lecturer, Tammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand, 1999.
Rufus Putnam Visiting Professor, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA, 2001-2002.
Member of Majlis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR, Peoples Consultative Assembly), Indonesias highest legislative body, 1998-1999.
Lecturer in Perguruan Tinggi Ilmu Kepolisian (Police Science College), 2002-now.
Professor of Political Science in Muhammadiyah University Malang, East Java (2004- )
Senior Partner, PT. Indoconsult, consulting firm, 2002-now.
Political Adviser to the Indonesian Chief of Police (Kapolri), 2001-
Profil Dunia Film Indonesia [Profile of the Indonesian Film World], Jakarta: Grafiti Pers, 1982.
Genesis of Power: General Sudirman and the Indonesian Military in Politics, 1945-49, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1991.
Shadows on the Silver Screen: A Social History of Indonesian Film, Jakarta: Lontar, 1991.
Dari Festival ke Festival [From Festival to Festival], Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, Council, 1995.
Militer Indonesia dalam Politik [Indonesian Military in Politics], Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 2001.
Wawancara tentang Tentara dan Politik [Interviews on Military and Politics], Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 2001.
Tumbuh dan Tumbangnya Dwifungsi (The Making and Unmaking of The Dual Funtion of the Indonesian Armed Forces)., Jakarta: Aksara Karunia, 2002.
“The Political Role of the Indonesian Military: Past, Present, and Future”, Southeast Asian Journal of Social Sciences, 15, 1 (1987).
“Man and Revolutionary Crisis in Indonesian Film”, East – West Film Journal 4, 2 (1990), pp. 111-129.
“The Political Involvement of the Indonesian Military During the Independence Revolution and its Impact on Contemporary Indonesian Politics”, in P.J. Drooglever and M.J.B. Schouten (eds.) De leeuw en de banten, Den Haag, 1997.
“Suharto’s Armed Forces: Building a Power Base in New Order Indonesia, 1996-1998”, Asian Survey XXXVIII, 6 (June 1998).
“The Military, The Police, and the Position of the Commander in Chief: Historical and Political Analysis”, paper presented to the Lembaga Pertahanan Nasional (National Defense Institute), Jakarta: March 1999. (In Indonesian.)
“Political Leadership and Civilian Supremacy in Third Wave Democracies: Comparing South Korea and Indonesia,” with Yong-Cheol Kim (Chonan University, South Korea) and R.William Liddle( Ohio State University, USA), presented to the annual conference of the Association of Asian Studies, San Diago, Califormia, USA, 2004.
“Menghindari Koumintang dan Amerika Latin, Terjebak Dwifungsi,” (Avoiding Koumintang and Latin America, Trapped by Dual Function), paper presented to a seminar celebrating the 80th birthday of General T.B. Simatupang, Jakarta 22 March, 2001.
“Polisi Republik Indonesia Dalam Putaran Arus Politik,” (Indonesian National Police in Political Turmoil), speech prepared for the 54th Anniversary of PTIK (Indonesian Police College), presented in PTIK, Jakarta 17 June ,2000.
“Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid and The Indonesian Military: The Short Honey moon,” paper presented at the conference on Consolidating Democracy, held in Columbus, Ohio, USA May 11-13, 2001.
“Democracy, the Middle Class, and the Political Role of the Indonesian Military”, GATRA (October, 1997). In Indonesian.
“The Indonesian Military: Tool of the State or Tool of the Government ?” GATRA (June 1996). In Indonesian.
“General Soemitro, Civilian and The Military,” GATRA (1994).
“General Tanjung and General Hartono,” GATRA (1995),
“General Hartono, ICMI and Minister Habibie,” GATRA (1997).
“Avoiding The Mistake of Gorbachev,” GATRA (1995),
“Terminating The The Political Role of The Indonesian Military?” GATRA (1997).
The Controversy on the The Present of the Military in the People Consultative Assembly (MPR),” SUARA PEMBARUAN (2000).
“The President, The Parliament and The Military,” SUARA PEMBARUAN (2000)
“The Dual Function of the Indonesian Military: Past, Present and Future”, paper presented to a seminar on the political role of the Indonesian military. Organized by the Staff and Command School of the Indonesian Army (Seskoad), Bandung, Indonesia, November 1996. (In Indonesian).
“The Political Leadership of the Indonesian Military in Historical Perspective”, paper presented to a seminar to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Indonesian National Military Academy, Magelang, Central Java, November 1997. (In Indonesian).
“Ideology and the Professionalization of the Indonesian Military”, paper presented to a seminar discussing the political role of the military. Organized by the parliamentary correspondent of the Jakarta Journalist Association, February 1998. (In Indonesian).
“The Military in Indonesian Politics in the Post Suharto Era”, paper presented to the Center of Asian Studies, Hongkong University, November 1998.
Satya Lencana Penegak RI